Post-NPM and changing public governance

Abstract

This article focuses essentially on four issues. First, it examines the typical features of the post-New Public Management reform wave, as experienced in some of the former trail-blazing countries for NPM. Second, the manuscript asks the basic reason behind the rise of the post-NPM reforms. In this connection, the paper points to a combination of external pressure, cultural factors and actions from the political leadership to be one of the major forces which have helped emerge the new reform efforts. Third, the treatise addresses to the question of: to what extent the post-NPM reform movement has moved beyond or replaced NPM, or whether it has merely supplemented them. Fourth, the paper highlights characteristics of some of new complex and hybrid organization forms arising in the recent years. The paper contends that the organizational forms of public administration have increasingly become complex and multifunctional. It delineates the post-NPM reforms to have been rebalancing existing administrative systems in several countries. Some aspects of the old public administration have been combined with NPM and post-NPM features to create new hybrid and compound organizational forms in which governance elements coexist with other reform features. The paper finally concludes by arguing that the post-NPM reforms imply the focus of government to have increasingly shifted to horizontal coordination, in addition to enhancing political control.