Volume 6(2019)

PAGE 8/26

In general, the education level of younger age groups is higher than that of the older age groups. Among the people aged 19-35, 35.4% of them complete higher education, 27.9% high school, 27.5% secondary and 9.2% primary school. The education level is lower among people aged 36-60. Only 2.1% complete higher education, 18.5% high school, 43.8% secondary school and 35.6 primary school. This level is even lower for those aged over 60. Among them, no one completes higher education and several only complete primary school (55.7%) and secondary school (28.7%) whereas only 15.7% complete high school. This tightly correlates to the ability to find a stable job in the formal sector (Chi-square test: Pearson Chi-Square with Asymp. Sig. (two-sided) < 0.05; Pearson correlation 0.371; there is a statistically significant correlation between two variables: education and the formal-informal sector).

Figure 3: School attendance of students aged 6-22 and adult educational attainment

School attendance of those aged 6-22


Adult educational attainment (aged 19 - older than 60)



Living conditions of the poor households were analysed in terms of housing, power supply, water supply, sewage system, garbage collection and sanitation.

Residential location of the poor households

The research indicates that there is no concentration of poor households in any area of the city. On the contrary, they are dispersed in the same neighbourhoods as better-income households. The poor households mostly are located in small alleys (at 84.6 per cent) in both the central and peri-urban districts. The percentage of the poor living in alleys is about 7 per cent higher than that of the near-poor households. The average width of alleys is about 2.9 m. There are 18.5 per cent of the poor households living in alleys that are 1.5 m wide or even narrower.