Volume 2(2013)

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Aggressive diplomacy by such countries including China to secure food can become an unignorable pressure for Japan that depends on imports for much of the food it consumes. To secure food at stable quantities and prices as before under competition with China and other emerging countries in the international market, Japan has to move to strengthen ties with and invest in food producing countries more aggressively than ever.

Also as for energy resources, it is unlikely that the supply and demand of fuel resources such as oil in the world get stringent or these prices rise sharply due to China. Therefore, the impacts made on the U.S. and European countries can be said to be not so big.

However, to satisfy the increasing energy demand, China is highly likely to continue to act aggressively in the East and South China Sea to secure marine resources under the new leadership. As there are disputes over sovereignty with Japan and Southeast Asian countries in these marine areas, China's expansive move to secure marine resources can become a direct threat to neighboring nations.

Meanwhile, it is also thought that the new leadership of China continues to develop resource diplomacy vigorously with African and anti-U.S. Middle East countries where the U.S., EU, or Japan has placed less significance on as supply centers of energy resources. To maintain compartmentalization of supply sources as ever is desirable, but international competition for fossil fuels etc. may possibly become more intense in accordance with the rise of global energy demand.

Also in this point, to secure energy resources at stable quantities and prices as before, Japan that depends on imports for most of its energy resources is required to strengthen ties with and invest in resources exporting countries more than ever.

Acknowledgement

This study is supported by Sasakawa Peace Foundation. The original version of this paper was presented at the international seminar “Research Project on Future Japan-U.S. Security Cooperation,” held by Sasakawa Peace Foundation, in Tokyo, Japan, on June 24, 2013. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Mr. Richard Armitage, Prof. Joseph Nye Jr. at Harvard University, and Prof. Aaron Friedberg at Princeton University for their comments on the original version.

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